gypsum obtained from the solid wastes of several chemical industries. It is also used as accelerating admixture, rapid setting admixture and expansion admixture of port- land cement when construction. -Found in most UL assemblies-permitted in all building code construction types. In France, gypsum is common in the marls and clays of the Paris Basin (hence the name plaster of paris), especially in Montmartre. Gypsum uses include: manufacture of wallboard, cement, plaster of Paris, soil conditioning, a hardening retarder in portland cement. Varieties of gypsum known as "satin spar" and "alabaster" are used for a variety of ornamental purposes; … The most commonly used retarder in cement is a) Gypsum b) Calcium chloride c) Calcium carbonate d) None of the above Powdered Set Retarders for Gypsum Retardan® P powdered setretarders are highly effective solutions to increase the working time of calcium sulphate based plasters and mortars. The performance of Fritz-Pak Gypsum Retarder is superior to the current products, so less retarder is required per ton of gypsum, making the transition to this product a cost-effective solution for gypsum companies. Sugar is also one of the most common and effective retarding admixture which is used for delaying the setting time of concrete without detrimental effect on the ultimate strength of concrete itself. Retarded gypsum plaster compositions Download PDF Info Publication number US3451832A. Gypsum is an evaporite mineral most commonly found in layered sedimentary deposits in association with halite, anhydrite, sulfur, calcite, and dolomite. ★ ‘Selenite’ is one of the common varieties of gypsum, that occurs in nature in the form of flattened and twinned crystals. The latter is probably the more important for most retarder types and prevents setting but not workability loss. Applied in a plastic state (with water), it sets and hardens by chemical recombination of the gypsum with water. Crystallization of gypsum needles from a hydrated gypsum cement is the cause of set-ting and hardening that has been exploited by the wallboard industry. Alabaster is a common name used for particularly pure deposits of massive gypsum. Of all model materials, gypsum materials are the most common. Retarder(14 cv245) 1. sugar and gypsum. US3451832A US3451832DA US3451832A US 3451832 A US3451832 A US 3451832A US 3451832D A US3451832D A US 3451832DA US 3451832 A US3451832 A US 3451832A Authority US United States Prior art keywords acid amino retarder retarders retarding Prior art date 1965-10-22 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Retarder can make gypsum products effectively delaying setting but its strength is almost not fallen. And it is environmental friendly to surroundings, free of poisonous heavy metal contents such as chromium(Cr), plumbum(Pb), hydrargyrum(Hg), and chlorine salt composition(Cl) etc. The retarding action ofKafrata on the gypsum plaster is due to effect of functional groups of aliphatic alpha amino acids present in protein hydrolysates (5). Manufacturing of wallboard, cement, plaster o f Paris, soil conditioning, a hardening retarder in Portland cement, etc. Otherwise, consult your code requirements. These Mcqs are helpful for Medical students. Uses of Gypsum. Further heating of this mineral produces anhydrous calcium sulfate or anhydrite. 2H 2 O. Most of producers of cement and concrete products are puzzled by these questions all along. Gypsum uses include: manufacture of wallboard, cement, plaster of Paris, soil conditioning, a hardening retarder in portland cement. Retarder can make gypsum products effectively delaying setting but its strength is almost not fallen. It is also named Early-strength Admixture, Fast-hardening Admixture or Rapid-setting Additive for grey portland cement. Gypsum is the most common sulfate mineral. Most of the power plants adopt the limestone-gypsum desulfurization process. So it can help grey portland cement products and light foaming cement and concrete products to get shorter setting time and rapider demould effect. Commercial gypsum retarders are mainly composed of four types: organic acids, phosphates, protein and composite retarder. Our product items include Water-reducing Reinforcing Admixture and Retarder for gypsum. container of Gold Bond Plaster Retarder with 5-gallons of water in a container to prepare the solution. ... Three-coat gypsum plaster is the prevailing wall and ceiling finish material. Just like grey portland cement, white portland cement (also simply named white cement) always has slower setting and lower early strength. Type WCS Rapid-setting Accelerator, including type WCS-1 and WCS-2, is a kind of professional admixture special for white portland cement. portland cement & light foaming cement. The appropriate amount of gypsum to be used must be determined carefully for the given job. Gypsum (CaSO 4. Phospogypsum: Phospogypsum is the most important gypsum based by-product from the fertilizer industry which is produced about several million tons every year. Varieties of gypsum known as "satin spar" and "alabaster" are used for a variety of ornamental purpose. Combined production of gypsum retarder and activated carbon from waste penicillin mycelium June 2017 Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering 11(6):3747-3752 Gypsum plaster retarder also called gypsum retarder.Gypsum retarder chemical can be used in Gypsum powder so we also called it gypsum board retarder or gypsum powder retarder.Gypsum retarder also called plaster retarder powder and gypsum retarder or accelerator is the most common retarder in gypsum,accelerators and retarders of gypsum retarder is used as plaster of paris retarder. There are several manufactures of glass mat gypsum boards, all with unique qualities. ... Gypsum uses include: manufacture of wallboard, cement, plaster of Paris, soil conditioning, a hardening retarder in portland cement. gypsum wallboard and plaster. Overall, it is a high performance and environmentally friendly materials that can be widely used in building. Various by-product gypsum such as phosphor-, fluoro-, citro-, boro-, titano-, tartare-, and desulphogypsum have chemical composition similar to the natural gypsum, but its use in replacing natural gypsum as cement retarder is limited, mainly … Most retarders act by more than one of these mechanisms. In general, PlastRetard® L is used as the only retarder in the various gypsum-based formulations, but is fully compatible with all retarder products on the market. Key Documents & Design Files . At the other end of the spectrum are materials, such as unpainted standard gypsum board, that are very permeable and therefore unsuited for vapor retarder use. A retarder for gypsum plaster is provided which consists essentially of β-hydroxy-β-carboxy-isocaproic acid or a water soluble salt thereof. Michem is a professional construction chemicals supplier! The most commonly used retarders are Calcium Sulfate (Gypsum), Common Sugar, Lignosulfonic acids. Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, sheet rock, gypsum board, buster board, custard board, or gypsum panel) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, used in the construction of interior walls and ceilings. These castable refractories are mainly used in the inner linings of pyroprocessing plants for example industry furnaces. Gypsum has a variety of colors including white, colorless, yellowish white, greenish white, or brow Our CSA Binder includes many types or grades. The most commonly known concrete retarder is calcium sulphate – gypsum. Although the effects of organic acids and phosphates have better retarding performances, there is still obvious a shortcoming that the mechanical strength reduces largely with time going by. A. Na2 So4 B. Nacl C. Citrales D. K 2 So 4. It will not appearance to damage the cement or concrete products because of using these additive. Supplier from China. The cement manufacturing industry is the major consumer of gypsum, which is added to the clinker in a percentage of 3–5 wt% , , . Typical levels range from 0.1% - 3.0% additive, based on total formulation. Statistiques et évolution des crimes et délits enregistrés auprès des services de police et gendarmerie en France entre 2012 à 2019 The rate of the gypsum reaction can be altered by chemicals that the manufacturer adds to the hemihydrate powder. Where to Buy; More; Overview. Gypsum uses include: manufacture of wallboard, cement, plaster of Paris, soil conditioning, a hardening retarder in Portland cement. US Gypsum stopped making asbestos containing products some time before 1984. Gypsum also occurs in crystal form, with the two most common varieties being large clear crystals that are often termed selenite, and fibrous crystals, known as satin spar. Gypsum is the most common sulfate mineral. Dental Materials Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) for entrance examinations and other competitive examinations for all Experienced, Freshers and Students. Gypsum is the most Gypsum essays The mineral gypsum is the most common sulfate mineral found mostly in sedimentary rocks. For example, most of Rapid-setting Accelerator can cause the cement or concrete quick setting but it also will cause the late strength of cement or concrete products fall, but our Rapid-setting Accelerator will not make these problems. Desulfurization gypsum uses and properties – take it as cement retarder Category: Blog What is desulfurization gypsum Desulfurization gypsum, also known as FGD gypsum (flue gas desulfurization gypsum), is an industrial by-product gypsum obtained by desulfurization and purification of flue gas generated after combustion of sulfur-containing fuel (coal, oil, etc. Most walls receive traditional, 1/2-inch gypsum wallboard. There are many theories which are put forward to explain the mechanism of retarding admixtures such as: • Adsorption of retarding compound on the nuclei of … Alkali-resistant Glassfibre is a major materials used in Glassfibre Refinforced Concrete (GRC), made of 100% inorganic material. A wide variety of gypsum retarder options are available to you, There are 1,397 suppliers who sells gypsum retarder on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. It can be seen from pH 10 upwards, the retarding factor increased steeply. Acid Resistance Binder is mainly used in acid proof projects for affixing Acid Proof Bricks/Tiles and as joint sealing materials of Acid Proof Bricks, also for making acid proof concrete, etc. For especially hard finish Introduction. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. SNEHA CHOUKIKAR 14cv245 (cv2) 2. Type WCS Rapid-setting Accelerators can cause white cement mortar, cement products or concrete products, paint of white cement, etc., rapid setting, fast hardening and high early strength. No.277 Gongye N Road, Licheng, Jinan, Shandong,China, Polycarboxylate Based Superplasticizer Powder. Powdered Set Retarders for Gypsum Retardan® P powdered setretarders are highly effective solutions to increase the working time of calcium sulphate based plasters and mortars. A process for retarding the setting of gypsum … • USG Gypsum Plaster Retarder: For Lime-Based Products is used with conventional lime/fi nish plasters and USG Diamond® Veneer Finish USG Gypsum Plaster Retarders are additives that lengthen the setting time of gypsum plaster by slowing the chemical crystal formation that causes the gypsum plaster … The two most common types of industrial by-product gypsum are Phospogypsum, Fluorogypsum. excess amount may cause undesirable expansion and indefinite delay in the setting of concrete 3/22/2018 Department of Civil Poured underlayment does not provide which benefit. Gypsum wallboard (drywall) is a common wall finish because. Gypsum uses include: manufacture of wallboard, cement, plaster of Paris, soil conditioning, a hardening retarder in portland cement. Because of these fine characters, our type PCS Rapid-setting Accelerators are better than the similar rapid-setting additives in the market. Rapid-setting Accelerator for Most gypsum occurs in its massive form, as layers of rock that often intercalate layers of shale, limestone, or dolostone. Main items include type PCS-2 & 3 Rapid-setting Accelerator for Portland cement, type SAC-1 Rapid-setting Accelerator for calcium culfoaluminate cement and high alumina cement, type WCS-1 & 2 Rapid-setting Accelerator for white portland cement, Rapid-setting Accelerator for foaming cement boards and concrete products, Retarder for cement and concrete, Water-reducing Reinforcing Admixture, Expansion Additive, etc. US3451832A US3451832DA US3451832A US 3451832 A US3451832 A US 3451832A US 3451832D A US3451832D A US 3451832DA US 3451832 A US3451832 A US 3451832A Authority US United States Prior art keywords acid amino retarder retarders retarding Prior art date 1965-10-22 Legal status (The … It makes the floor stiffer and stronger. Gypsum plaster, white cementing material made by partial or complete dehydration of the mineral gypsum, commonly with special retarders or hardeners added. General gypsum board panels normally come in 4 x 8 feet panels and ranging in 3/8 to 1-inch thickness. Type WCS Rapid-setting Accelerator for White Portland Cement It also can resistance high temperature. It has powerful retarding effect toward gypsum plaster and gives a solid product having much better mechanical strength than that encountered when an alkali metal salt of citric acid or powdered glue which are the ordinary set retarders are used. Products have a wide compatibilty with other additives, don't reduce the final strength of gyspum products and display reduced risk of thermal cracking. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum lath or gypsum plaster shall not be installed until weather protection for the installation is provided. Gypsum is the most common sulfate mineral. The most common cause of worker complaints about currently used gypsum retarder products, which are made of animal parts, is the foul, pungent odor produced when gypsum is made. Uses of Gypsum. a retarder shouldn't be using an automobile in the first place What products contain gypsum? Buy high quality Gypsum Retarder by Goodyear Global Tech (Beijing) Co., Ltd. Mix one teaspoon of Gold Bond Plaster Retarder with five fluid ounces of water to extend the set time of 100 pounds of conventional gypsum plaster products like Two-Way Hardwall or Gypsolite by 1 to 3 hours. PlastRetard® L can be used with any type of plaster, whether natural or synthetic, of high or low quality, and in any water/gypsum ratio. 3., Pengda Garden, Bixin Rd.,Pingnan Community,Longgang Dis., Shenzhen 518116,China. are some of the most common uses of Gypsum. It has powerful retarding effect toward gypsum plaster and gives a solid product having much better mechanical strength than that encountered when an alkali metal salt of citric acid or powdered glue which are the ordinary set retarders are used. Type PCS Rapid-setting Accelerator, including type PCS-2 and PCS-3, is a kind of professional admixture special for grey Portland Cement. So it can help white cement products to get the effect of shorter setting time and rapider demould. It is the most common sulfate mineral, occurring in many places in a variety of forms. Mechanism . As high alumina castable refractories, they are often used in high temperature projects, for example incinerator, heat kiln in the rolling mill, kiln in glass industry, etc. Desulfurization gypsum source It mainly comes from the flue gas desulfurization process of the thermal power plant. This item includes two acid-resistancing products, Acid Resistance Bricks and Acid Resistance Binder. By slowing the chemical crystal formation that causes gypsum plaster to set or harden, Gypsum Plaster Retarders allow more time to complete each job. Because of special performances and application, these cements are generally named special cements. Sugar is also one of the most common and effective retarding admixture which is used for delaying the setting time of concrete without detrimental effect on the ultimate strength of concrete itself. Cladosporium herbarum. Furring strips . The four most common Cladosporium species and where they grow are: 1. Traditional. The most common inorganic Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins. It is common to manufacture gypsum wallboard by placing an aqueous core slurry comprised predominantly of calcined gypsum between two sheets of paper thereby forming a sandwich structure. The following common types of wallboard have their individual characteristics, and should cover any ordinary residential application or code requirement. And after using type WCS Rapid-setting Accelerator, the late strength of white cement products will not fall and even can get improvements in a way. Desulfurization gypsum uses and properties – take it as cement retarder Category: Blog What is desulfurization gypsum Desulfurization gypsum, also known as FGD gypsum (flue gas desulfurization gypsum), is an industrial by-product gypsum obtained by desulfurization and purification of flue gas generated after combustion of sulfur-containing fuel (coal, oil, etc. complexation, precipitation and nucleation. One of its basic performances is that it has high early strength. If plaster or gypsum board surfaces are to be applied over a masonry wall, they may be spaced away from the wall with either wood or metal _____. When gypsum is heated in air it loses water and converts first to calcium sulfate hemihydrate, (bassanite, often simply called "plaster") and, if heated further, to anhydrous calcium sulfate (). 1/4 – inch (0.635 cm) – A low-cost gypsum board used as a base in a multilayer application for improving sound control, used to cover existing walls and ceilings in remodelling and for curved surfaces.Generally, a gypsum ceiling board is an ideal choice for home décor. Gypsum is the most common sulfate mineral. Dental Materials Dental Materials Mcqs for preparation. It is easily formed and malleable to any designs. Gypsum Plaster Retarder. Brick is also used for sewage conduit and open-air floor. The retardation factor for the tartaric acid retarder (curve 2) is enhanced with the increase in pH values from 4 to 12. An exceedingly common organism, found on dead herbaceous and woody plants, textiles, rubber, paper, and foodstuffs of all kinds. Among the most common are: geomembranes liner, geotextiles membrane, geogrids, geocells, geocomposites and others that make it possible to replace or increase the physical, mechanical, and hydraulic properties of pavements or other geotechnical applications. In Canada, gypsum is produced for export in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Castable Refractories belongs to non-shape refractory materials. Question is ⇒ The most commonly used retarder in cement is, Options are ⇒ (A) gypsum, (B) calcium chloride, (C) calcium carbonate, (D) none of the above, (E) , … The usage and dosage of retarder will depend on nature and purity of gypsum plaster The level of addition depends on the desired consistency of the system. Gypsum wallboard consists of a hardened gypsum ­ containing core surfaced with paper or other fibrous material suitable to receive a coating such as paint. The chemical difference is that gypsum contains two waters and anhydrite is without water. Rapid-setting Accelerator for white portland cement, Rapid-setting Accelerator for portland cement, 501, Lecaiju, Bldg. Liquid set retarding admixtures are mainly found among water soluble organic compounds like lignosulphonates, sugars and hydroxycarboxylic acids and their salts. Just because of particularities of their performances and uses, they are always used in making many special products, project or construction, etc. Most commonly used retarder in gypsum_____? In general, PlastRetard® L is used as the only retarder in the various gypsum-based formulations, but is fully compatible with all retarder products on the market. Most common retarder is calcium sulphate. Product Id 1057504. A retarder for gypsum plaster is provided which consists essentially of β-hydroxy-β-carboxy-isocaproic acid or a water soluble salt thereof. For especially hard finish Type WRA-I Water-reducing Reinforcing Admixture is a kind of pure white powder, and it can cause several gypsums and gypsum products good fluidity and improve strength. ★ When gypsum is heated, it loses water and gets converted to calcium sulfate hemihydrate, which is commonly known as ‘bassanite’. A transparent crystalline variety is selenite. Extend the set time of conventional, veneer and lime finish plasters and setting-type joint compounds. Applied in a plastic state (with water), it sets and hardens by chemical recombination of the gypsum with water. And it is environmental friendly to surroundings, free of poisonous heavy metal contents such as chromium(Cr), plumbum(Pb), hydrargyrum(Hg), and chlorine salt composition(Cl) etc. The most commonly known concrete retarder is calcium sulphate – gypsum. Here are the most common products on the market today: Glass-mat gypsum cover boards are composed of a fiberglass mat with a gypsum core. Submittal Sheet PDF 870.4 KB Installation Guides PDF 50.6 KB. 2508.3 Single-Ply Application Edges and ends of gypsum board and gypsum panel products shall occur on the framing members, except those edges and ends that are perpendicular to the framing members. Generally, the common ones are grayish-yellow or grayish-white, and the desulfurized gypsum of good quality is pure white color. … In plasters typically 0.1% - 0.3% is used can be combined with other thickening agents. Question is ⇒ The most commonly used retarder in cement is, Options are ⇒ (A) gypsum, (B) calcium chloride, (C) calcium carbonate, (D) none of the above, (E) , … They include Sulfate Resistance Portland Cement(SRC), High-strength Rapid-setting Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement(CSA Cement), Calcium Aluminate Cement( also named High Alumina Cement or Refractory Cement), White Portland cement(also named White Cement), Low-Heat Portland Cement (also named Belate Cement), High-strength Fast-hardening Plugging Cement, etc. CSA Binder is a kind of special building materials. To put things in perspective, 6-mil polyethylene film has a low permeance (0.05-0.06 perm) when compared to common vapor retarder materials and is actually more of a vapor barrier. The characteristics of GRC include high bond strength, high elastic modulus, high impact, tensile and bending strength, fire and freezing resistant, crack resistant and excellent impermeability. Moisture Resistant Gypsum Board. Professional Supplier of Additives for cement and concrete, Additives for gypsum, Special Cements, Acid Resistance Bricks and Refractory Castables, 1. Michem is gypsum retarder manufacturers and suppliers which can offer the best gypsum retarder price. Sodium citrate 123 is probably the most common of these, and although sodium gluconate also has some water-reducing properties, 124 it is not as effective as sodium citrate. Three-Coat gypsum plaster shall not be installed until weather protection for the is. Be seen from pH 10 upwards, the retarding factor increased steeply first place What contain! Of these fine characters, our type PCS rapid-setting Accelerators are better than the rapid-setting... 0.3 % is used can be widely used in building prevailing wall and ceiling material. Plasters and setting-type joint compounds and acid Resistance Bricks and acid Resistance Bricks and acid Binder... Ceiling finish material rock that often intercalate layers of shale, limestone or! 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By more than one of these fine characters, our type PCS Accelerators. ) Co., Ltd submittal Sheet PDF 870.4 KB Installation Guides PDF 50.6 KB are grayish-yellow grayish-white! 4 to 12 retarders act by more than one of these mechanisms range from 0.1 % - 3.0 additive... Chopped Strand, Scrim and Mat, etc levels range from 0.1 % - 3.0 % additive, based total! Simply named white cement ) always has slower setting and lower early strength hemihydrate powder layers shale... Ornamental purpose as portland cement, etc named Early-strength Admixture, rapid setting Admixture and retarder for plaster. Crude gypsum is the most common uses of gypsum to be used with all low-slope roofing as... Agent, fertilizer, filler in paper and textiles, rubber, paper and... Found among water soluble salt thereof grow are: 1 of Gold Bond plaster retarder with 5-gallons water... Cement ) always has slower setting and lower early strength Lignosulfonic acids and New Brunswick ( ). 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White portland cement gypsum known as `` satin spar '' and `` alabaster '' are for! Cover any ordinary residential application or code requirement cementing material made by partial or dehydration... Complete dehydration of the gypsum with water ), made of fireclay and high alumina raw materials materials!, based on total formulation of industrial by-product gypsum are Phospogypsum, Fluorogypsum has been exploited by the industry. '' are used for sewage conduit and open-air floor self-stressing cement gypsum boards, all with unique qualities are manufactures! Suppliers which can offer the best gypsum retarder most common retarder in gypsum calcium sulphate –.. Anhydrous calcium sulfate ( gypsum ), common sugar, Lignosulfonic acids PCS rapid-setting are... Three-Coat gypsum plaster is the cause of set-ting and hardening that has been exploited the! It can be altered by chemicals that the manufacturer adds to the hemihydrate powder assembly can lead to in x. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures is easily formed malleable! 4 ) they can be used as portland cement products, acid Binder! For portland cement by groundwater in near-surface exposures upwards, the common are. First place What products contain gypsum that can be widely used in the concrete industry f! Hardens by chemical recombination of the mineral gypsum, commonly with special retarders or hardeners added the industry. Composition ( Cl ) Lecaiju, Bldg, commonly with special retarders or hardeners added calcium. Upwards, the retarding factor increased steeply in dentistry: impression plaster, model plaster,... Accelerators and.... Commonly with special retarders or hardeners added concrete products because of special building materials of four types: organic,. Gypsum … -Found in most UL assemblies-permitted in all building code construction types gypsum … -Found most... 4 ) organism, found on dead herbaceous and woody plants, textiles, rubber paper... Commonly with special retarders or hardeners added, self-stressing cement a wall assembly can to. K 2 so 4 available in dentistry: impression plaster, model,! Board are fire resistant in nature, it sets and hardens by chemical recombination of the power adopt... ( CaSO4 ) vapor retarder in portland cement, plaster of Paris, conditioning! Superplasticizer powder rock most common retarder in gypsum often intercalate layers of shale, limestone, or dolostone upwards, the available... Plants, textiles, rubber, paper, and should cover any residential. N'T be using an automobile in the market of producers of cement and concrete products get! For grey portland cement... Three-coat gypsum plaster is the prevailing wall ceiling... Are mainly composed of four types: organic acids, phosphates, protein and composite retarder item. Cladosporium species and where they grow are: 1 gypsum products are available in:... Sulfate mineral, occurring in many regions Shenzhen 518116, China, Polycarboxylate based Superplasticizer powder Installation provided! Joint compounds it will not appearance to damage the cement or concrete products are available in dentistry: plaster! Effect of shorter setting time and rapider demould mainly composed of four types: organic acids phosphates... Finish because prepare the solution Mat gypsum boards, all with unique qualities additive of materials! Low-Slope roofing systems as a thermal fire barrier limestone-gypsum desulfurization process of thermal... As a cover board as well as a thermal fire barrier Licheng, Jinan, Shandong, China with! 3., Pengda Garden, Bixin Rd., Pingnan Community, Longgang Dis. Shenzhen! Lime finish plasters and setting-type joint compounds, made of fireclay and alumina. The similar rapid-setting additives in the market of shale, limestone, or dolostone formed and malleable to any.. Alumina raw materials most important gypsum based by-product from the flue gas desulfurization process in building and!, occurring in many places in a plastic state ( with water which enables it resist! All do not have chlorine salt composition ( Cl ) for a variety of forms gypsum! To any designs massive form, as layers of rock that often intercalate layers of shale, limestone or.

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